This week I’m going to quickly introduce a couple more foundational concepts in quantum physics. This discussion is a little brief, and one of these days probably end up writing something in a little more detail on some of these topics. Regardless, this hopefully gives a starting point in some of these concepts.

# Propagators

When developing our understanding of that Quantum world, it is easy to see that things in the classical world never quite work in the same way. On the quantum scale, instead of working with simple particles travelling in well-defined paths, you usually get particles with paths and properties that can best be described as ‘smeared’ across spacetime. Most of the time you can’t categorize them as either a discrete particle or a continuous wave. Particles can be considered to simultaneously existing in different states and locations at the same time. Given these difficulties, physicists tend to work with probabilities and statistical descriptions instead of focusing on some absolute truth of some singular reality.

One important function in quantum physics is the **propagator**. The propagator is a function that takes an observed position and state, and tells us the likelihood of observing that same particle at a another position and state at a different time. Propagators help us predict how a particle will behave on quantum scales, so calculating them is an important part of any quantum theory.

*If a particle exists at spacetime point A, the propagator can tell us how likely we will observe it at another spacetime point B. Note that only one of many possible paths is shown,*

The tricky part is actually calculating the propagator. You may be recalling my last post on the **principle of least action**. ‘Hey!’ You might say, ‘Can’t we just find use the action again and find a minimum/maximum path to predict how the particle moves?’ That would be a good approach, however there is no absolute certainty in the quantum scale so the best we can do is find a probability. Luckily, we can tweak our approach of using the action just a little and it’ll be able to find a probability instead.

Our solution to this problem hinges on our understanding on how a particle moves through time on a quantum scale. Since particles are ambiguously wave-like (see wave-particle duality), they also travel like waves. This means that they oscillate in a way that is most conveniently described by imaginary numbers. The full derivation involves exploring the **Schrodinger equation **and something called the **Hamiltonian, **and we’ll touch on that a little.

# Time-Evolution

So without dipping too much into the details, I’ll lay out some of the technical formulation of how this works. We can represent the transition along a path between two spacetime points like this:

In this equation, |x-A> represents our initial spacetime state. <x-B| represents our final spacetime state, and e^-(iH(tB-tA)) is our **time evolution operator**. tB-tA represents the change in time between the two spacetime points. G is our propagator.

For those unfamiliar with this kind of exponential with an imaginary number, it means that the state is going through a complex (or imaginary) rotation. It isn’t easy to describe in relatable physical terms, but it is heavily related to the concept of superposition. When two different things are in sync with one another, they tend to add up and cause **constructive interference**. When they are oppositely aligned, they cancel out and cause **destructive interference**.

*Waves in sync can combine to larger waves through constructive interference. Waves out of sync with produce smaller waves through destructive interference. Image courtesy of Joe’s waves revision page: **https://waves.neocities.org/superposition.html*

As mentioned earlier, the value of H is the **Hamiltonian**, a quantity that is closely related to the Lagrangian. The Hamiltonian probably deserves its own article so I’ll be pretty brief here. In most cases the hamiltonian can be interpreted as the total energy of the system. So this time evolution operator tells us that the particle undergoes a complex rotation through time, and that rotation is related to the total energy of the system (ie: the particle in this case).

**What does it mean?**

The time-evolution operator and the propagator are both used to describe and understand the nature of quantum physics. While these are both human tools used to describe a physical realm the defies our intuitive understanding, examining them can reveal a lot about the nature of quantum reality.

The imaginary rotation through time evolution is more than just an abstract mathematical description, it is what tells us that particles can undergo constructive and destructive depending on a difference in some kind of phase. From this equation, we know that the progression of this wave-like behavior is related to energy, and from here we can begin to ask why? What would energy be connected to the passage through time in this way?

The propagator gives a basic tool to start working with the uncertainties of the quantum world. Through it we can start working with complex interrelations between particles in **Feynman diagrams** or we can used them to describe the odd phenomena of **tunneling**. Possessing these tools moves us away from the assumptions of the classical world and empowers us to tackle much more difficult problems in quantum physics.

Many of these tools are central to the field of quantum mechanics. Here are some resources for anyone who wants to learn more:

**BOOK: Modern Quantum Mechanics**, J. J. Sakurai

One of the most commonly cited textbooks on Quantum Mechanics. Develops all the concepts in a detailed approach. Chapter 2 tackles some of the topics here.

https://www.amazon.ca/Modern-Quantum-Mechanics-Revised-Sakurai/dp/0201539292

**VIDEO AND READINGS: Quantum Entanglements**, Leonard Susskind

These lectures provide a great introduction to Quantum Mechanics. Each lecture contains video and written material. Lectures 8 and 9 are related to what I have discussed in this post.

http://www.lecture-notes.co.uk/susskind/quantum-entanglements/